History of Paper - Timeline 1500 -


- Years -
< 500 | 500 - 1000 | 1000 - 1500 |1500 >

1501 CE Michelangelo begins "David" sculpture.
1540 G. L. de Cardenas discovers the Grand Canyon in Arizona. Native Americans knew it was there all the time.
1553 The violin in its present form begins to develop.
1560 Visiting cards used for the first time by German students in Italy.
1564 Both Shakespeare and Galileo born.
1568 The date of the first delineation of a papermaker at work to appear in Europe, the picture by Jost Amman with a short poem by Hans Sachs. The book of trades published in Frankfurt in 1568.
1568 Gerardus Mercator devised cylindrical projection for charts.
1572 John Donne and Ben Jonson born in England; "Il Re," one of the earliest cellos built by Andrea Amati of Cremona.
1575-80 According to Relacion del pueblo de Culhauacan desta Nueve Espana (1580), the first paper mill in Mexico was established in Culhuacan, it being "a mill with a hammer in which paper was made."
1576 Paper made in Moscow, Russia.
1589 Forks used for first time at French court; Caravaggio paints "Bacchus."
1591 Paper made in Scotland.
1606 Rembrandt born
1611  King James Bible printed.
1620 Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock (Mayflower).
1638 Torture abolished in England.
1639 Académie Française begins to compile dictionary of French language.
1648 Taj Mahal completed.
1657 Drinking chocolate introduced in London; first stockings and fountain pens manufactured in Paris; Christian Huygens designs first pendulum for clocks.
1680 Hollander beater "perfected" in the Netherlands.
1685 Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frederick Handel, and Domenico Scarlatti born; James II crowned in England.
1690 Paper made in Philadelphia by William Rittenhouse (Willem Ruddinghuysen van Mulheim) on the banks of a small stream called Paper Mill Run, which flowed into Wissahickon Creek near Germantown, Pennsylvania. Most early mills in the American colonies were sarted by transplanted papermakers, like Rittenhouse, who modeled their operations on European mills of the day. These mills had to be located near populated areas that could provide a reliable supply of rags, the main raw material at that time. A generous supply of fresh water was also a requirement, both for washing the fibers and turning the mill machinery.
1703  Work begun on Buckingham Palace, London; Peter the Great lays foundations of St. Petersburg.
1705 First newspaper in the American colonies was the Boston News Letter.
1705 Young J. S. Bach walks 200 miles to Lübeck to hear the Abendmusiken, directed by Buxtehude.
1706 Benjamin Franklin born.
1710 William De Wees sets up second paper mill near Philadelphia.
1712  Slaves revolt in New York; Pope writes "The Rape of the Lock"; last execution for witchcraft in England.
1721 Swiss immigrants introduced rifles into America; Bach writes "The Brandenburg Concertos.
1726 William Bradford started a paper mill in New Jersey to supply paper for the New York Gazette.
1726 First circulating library established by Allan Ramsay in Edinburgh; Swift writes "Gulliver's Travels."
1733 Latin language abolished in English courts.
1735 John Peter Zenger acquitted of seditious libel in landmark trial for freedom of the press.
1755 Wove paper made.
1756 Formal declaration of French and Indian War; Thomas Rowlandson, English Caricaturist, born; first chocolate factory established in Germany.
1757 Reamur dies; he first suggested wood as a papermaking fiber.
1760 Marie (Madame) Tussaud born; Josiah Wedgwood founded pottery works in England.
1760 Watermarks used in wove paper.
1765 Spallanzani suggests preserving by means of hermetic sealing; the potato becomes the most popular European foodstuff; Lord Nelson's future flagship, the H.M.S. Victory launched.
1769 Napoleon Bonaparte born in Corsica.
1770 Ludwig Van Beethoven born; civil liberties, international free trade, textile machines, and steam power lead in England to an industrial revolution that slowly spreads all over the world; Leonhard Euler writes Introduction to Algebra.
1771 First edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica published.
1776 American Revolution begins; first military ski competitions in Norway; the future Lady Hester Stanhope, English eccentric who settled among the Druses of Lebanon, born.
1776-1820 Nathan Sellers of Pennsylvania was a skilled wire drawer who applied his craft to the manufacture of paper molds. After 1776, he supplied molds for hundreds of American papermakers. This ability was so rare that when Sellers joined the American army in the fall of 1776, he was soon discharged by a special resolution of the Continental Congress, which sent him home to create the molds that were so desperately needed to make the paper used for powder wrappers and written orders during the Revolutionary War.
1777  "Stars and Stripes" adopted as Continental Congress flag.
1783 End of American Revolution.
1789 George Washington chosen president; French Revolution begins.
1790's By this date, American papermakers had begun experimenting with alternative raw materials, and many mills tested local sources of fiber as substitutes for rag pulp, including tree bark, bagasse (sugarcane waste), straw, and cornstalks. Wood pulp became a viable option thanks to the work of Mathias Koops in England and the increasing availability of mechanical wood grinders.
1799 George Washington dies; Rosetta Stone found in Egypt, making the deciphering of hieroglyphics possible; Balzac born in France.
1802 John Dalton introduces atomic theory into chemist; Beethoven writes his second symphony; Mme. De Staël writes Delphine.
1803 Louisiana Purchase.
1804 First book printed on machine-made paper.
1809 Elizabeth Seton founds Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph in US.
1810 By this date, there were some 185 paper mills in the United States.
1812  Napoleon invades Russia; Beethoven and Goethe meet at Teplitz; Elgin Marbles brought to England
1814 Francis Scott Key writes poem, "Defense of Fort McHenry," later set to music of "Anacreon in Heaven" to become US national anthem ("The Star-Spangled Banner"),
1817 First paper machine in America erected in Thomas Gilpin's mill near Philadelphia.
1824 Beethoven completes his 9th Symphony; Lord Byron dies at Missolonghi in Turko-Greek War; R.S.P.C.A. founded in London; beginning of German emigration to Brazil.
1827 Louis Baedeker begins publishing his travel guides; Joseph Niepce produces photographs on a metal plate.
1846 War between US and Mexico; first painted Christmas card designed; Smithsonian Institution founded.
1854 Thoreau's Walden published.
1859 Harper's Ferry seized; Darwin published Origin of Species; first oil well drilled at Titusville, Pennsylvania.
1860's Replacement of rag pulp paper with wood pulp.
1860 Lincoln elected President of US; Garibaldi begins to unify Italy; Gustav Mahler, German composer, born.
1863 The first US newspaper to be printed on paper made from groundwood pulp was the edition of the Boston Weekly Journal that appeared on January 14, 1863.
1865 Lincoln assassinated; Edward Whymper climbs the Matterhorn; first woman, Maria Mitchell, appointed as professor of astronomy, Vassar College.
1866 Ku Klux Klan organized; Alfred Nobel invents dynamite; Degas begins to paint his ballet scenes.
1871 Great Chicago Fire; Wilhelm I becomes Kaiser of Germany; P. T. Barnum open "The Greatest Show on Earth in Brooklyn, NY.
1881 Picasso born; flogging abolished in British Army and Navy.
1885 "Jelly Roll" Morton born; George Eastman manufactured coated photographic paper.
1886 Sherlock Holmes created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle; Statue of Liberty dedicated.
1890 Battle of Wounded Knee; rubber gloves are used for the first time in surgery (Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore).
1895 X-rays discovered by Roentgen; Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey born.
1898 George Gershwin born
1903 Wright brothers' first flight; Emmeline Pankhurst founds National Women's Social and Political Union; Richard Steiff designs first teddy bears (named after Theodore Roosevelt).
1914  World War I begins.
1925 A copy of the Bible cost the equivalent of approximately $2,000 in the 14th century; in 1455, $500; in the 17th century, $100; by 1925, $3.
1928 First talking picture, "Lights of New York"; Amelia Earhart is first woman to fly across the Atlantic.
1942  First nuclear chain reaction at University of Chicago (Enrico Fermi and Arthur Compton).
1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion into Cuba; Yuri Gagarin becomes first human in orbit.
1963 John F. Kennedy assassinated.
1967 First human heart transplant; Mickey Mantle hits his 500th career home run.
1968 Martin Luther King assassinated; Charles de Gaulle resigns; Neil Armstrong first man on the moon.
1977 Jules Heller establishes first paper mill at Arizona State University.
1977  Voyagers I and II depart earth for deep penetration of our solar system.

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