- Years -
< 500 |
500 - 1000 |
1000 - 1500 |1500 >
begins "David" sculpture.
||G. L. de
Cardenas discovers the Grand Canyon in Arizona. Native Americans knew
it was there all the time.
||The violin in
its present form begins to develop.
cards used for the first time by German students in Italy.
Shakespeare and Galileo born.
||The date of
the first delineation of a papermaker at work to appear in Europe, the
picture by Jost Amman with a short poem by Hans Sachs. The book of
trades published in Frankfurt in 1568.
Mercator devised cylindrical projection for charts.
and Ben Jonson born in England; "Il Re," one of the earliest
cellos built by Andrea Amati of Cremona.
Relacion del pueblo de Culhauacan desta Nueve Espana (1580), the first
paper mill in Mexico was established in Culhuacan, it being "a
mill with a hammer in which paper was made."
||Paper made in
for first time at French court; Caravaggio paints "Bacchus."
||Paper made in
at Plymouth Rock (Mayflower).
abolished in England.
Française begins to compile dictionary of French language.
chocolate introduced in London; first stockings and fountain pens
manufactured in Paris; Christian Huygens designs first pendulum for
beater "perfected" in the Netherlands.
Sebastian Bach, George Frederick Handel, and Domenico Scarlatti born;
James II crowned in England.
in Philadelphia by William Rittenhouse (Willem Ruddinghuysen van
Mulheim) on the banks of a small stream called Paper Mill Run, which
flowed into Wissahickon Creek near Germantown, Pennsylvania. Most
early mills in the American colonies were sarted by transplanted
papermakers, like Rittenhouse, who modeled their operations on
European mills of the day. These mills had to be located near
populated areas that could provide a reliable supply of rags, the main
raw material at that time. A generous supply of fresh water was also a
requirement, both for washing the fibers and turning the mill
||Work begun on
Buckingham Palace, London; Peter the Great lays foundations of St.
newspaper in the American colonies was the Boston News Letter.
||Young J. S.
Bach walks 200 miles to Lübeck to hear the Abendmusiken, directed by
Wees sets up second paper mill near Philadelphia.
in New York; Pope writes "The Rape of the Lock"; last
execution for witchcraft in England.
immigrants introduced rifles into America; Bach writes "The
Bradford started a paper mill in New Jersey to supply paper for the
New York Gazette.
circulating library established by Allan Ramsay in Edinburgh; Swift
writes "Gulliver's Travels."
language abolished in English courts.
Zenger acquitted of seditious libel in landmark trial for freedom of
declaration of French and Indian War; Thomas Rowlandson, English
Caricaturist, born; first chocolate factory established in Germany.
he first suggested wood as a papermaking fiber.
(Madame) Tussaud born; Josiah Wedgwood founded pottery works in
used in wove paper.
suggests preserving by means of hermetic sealing; the potato becomes
the most popular European foodstuff; Lord Nelson's future flagship,
the H.M.S. Victory launched.
Bonaparte born in Corsica.
Beethoven born; civil liberties, international free trade, textile
machines, and steam power lead in England to an industrial revolution
that slowly spreads all over the world; Leonhard Euler writes
Introduction to Algebra.
of Encyclopaedia Britannica published.
Revolution begins; first military ski competitions in Norway; the
future Lady Hester Stanhope, English eccentric who settled among the
Druses of Lebanon, born.
Sellers of Pennsylvania was a skilled wire drawer who applied his
craft to the manufacture of paper molds. After 1776, he supplied molds
for hundreds of American papermakers. This ability was so rare that
when Sellers joined the American army in the fall of 1776, he was soon
discharged by a special resolution of the Continental Congress, which
sent him home to create the molds that were so desperately needed to
make the paper used for powder wrappers and written orders during the
and Stripes" adopted as Continental Congress flag.
Washington chosen president; French Revolution begins.
date, American papermakers had begun experimenting with alternative
raw materials, and many mills tested local sources of fiber as
substitutes for rag pulp, including tree bark, bagasse (sugarcane
waste), straw, and cornstalks. Wood pulp became a viable option thanks
to the work of Mathias Koops in England and the increasing
availability of mechanical wood grinders.
Washington dies; Rosetta Stone found in Egypt, making the deciphering
of hieroglyphics possible; Balzac born in France.
introduces atomic theory into chemist; Beethoven writes his second
symphony; Mme. De Staël writes Delphine.
printed on machine-made paper.
Seton founds Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph in US.
||By this date,
there were some 185 paper mills in the United States.
invades Russia; Beethoven and Goethe meet at Teplitz; Elgin Marbles
brought to England
Key writes poem, "Defense of Fort McHenry," later set to
music of "Anacreon in Heaven" to become US national anthem
("The Star-Spangled Banner"),
machine in America erected in Thomas Gilpin's mill near Philadelphia.
completes his 9th Symphony; Lord Byron dies at Missolonghi in Turko-Greek
War; R.S.P.C.A. founded in London; beginning of German emigration to
Baedeker begins publishing his travel guides; Joseph Niepce produces
photographs on a metal plate.
US and Mexico; first painted Christmas card designed; Smithsonian
Ferry seized; Darwin published Origin of Species; first oil well
drilled at Titusville, Pennsylvania.
||Replacement of rag pulp
paper with wood pulp.
elected President of US; Garibaldi begins to unify Italy; Gustav
Mahler, German composer, born.
||The first US
newspaper to be printed on paper made from groundwood pulp was the
edition of the Boston Weekly Journal that appeared on January 14,
assassinated; Edward Whymper climbs the Matterhorn; first woman, Maria
Mitchell, appointed as professor of astronomy, Vassar College.
||Ku Klux Klan
organized; Alfred Nobel invents dynamite; Degas begins to paint his
Fire; Wilhelm I becomes Kaiser of Germany; P. T. Barnum open "The
Greatest Show on Earth in Brooklyn, NY.
flogging abolished in British Army and Navy.
Roll" Morton born; George Eastman manufactured coated
Holmes created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle; Statue of Liberty dedicated.
Wounded Knee; rubber gloves are used for the first time in surgery
(Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore).
discovered by Roentgen; Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey born.
brothers' first flight; Emmeline Pankhurst founds National Women's
Social and Political Union; Richard Steiff designs first teddy bears
(named after Theodore Roosevelt).
||World War I
||A copy of the
Bible cost the equivalent of approximately $2,000 in the 14th century;
in 1455, $500; in the 17th century, $100; by 1925, $3.
picture, "Lights of New York"; Amelia Earhart is first woman
to fly across the Atlantic.
chain reaction at University of Chicago (Enrico Fermi and Arthur
||Bay of Pigs
Invasion into Cuba; Yuri Gagarin becomes first human in orbit.
heart transplant; Mickey Mantle hits his 500th career home run.
King assassinated; Charles de Gaulle resigns; Neil Armstrong first man
on the moon.
establishes first paper mill at Arizona State University.
and II depart earth for deep penetration of our solar system.
< 500 |
500 - 1000 |
1000 - 1500 |1500 >
- Years -