- Years -
< 500 | 500 - 1000 |
1000 - 1500 |1500 >
||Mohammedans sack the Holy Sepulcher in
||1549 Spanish missionary
Diego de Landa burned the library of the Mayas in Mani. The Mayas were
making a sort of bark paper as early as the ninth century.
1550 Probably date of the origin and use of marbled papers, a
||Omar Khayyam, Persian poet and scientist,
||Persian traveller Nasiri
Khosrau, on a visit to Cairo, was astonished to see "sellers of
vegetables, spices, hardware, provided with paper in which all they
sold was immediately wrapped up, if it were not so already."
Perhaps the earliest recorded instance of "packaging."
||Edward the Confessor begins building
||Battle of Hastings; Normans conquer
||Paper mill established at
Fez in Morocco, having been introduced from Egypt; paper used in
||The dialect of the Ile-de-France becomes
the prevailing idiom of France, and Middle English supersedes Old
||Paper used in Sicily.
European manuscript on paper (Sicily), a deed of King Roger, written
in Arabic and Greek.
||Averroės, Arab scholar and philosopher,
||According to legend, Jean
Montgolfier on the Second Crusade was taken prisoner by Saracens and
forced to labor in a Damascus paper mill. He is supposed to have
returned to France and in 1157 set up a papermaking establishment in
established in Spain at Xativa. El-Edrisi said of the Spanish city of
Xįtiva: "Paper is there manufactured, such as cannot be found
anywhere else in the civilized world, and is sent to the East and to
the West." Early paper was at first disfavored by the Christian
world as a manifestation of Moslem culture, and a 1221 decree from
Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II declared all official documents
written on paper to be invalid. (The interests of wealthy European
landowners in sheep and cattle for parchment and vellum may also have
exerted some influence.) Only with the rise of the printing press in
the mid 1400's change European attitudes toward paper.
||Genghis Khan born; Thomas ą Becket elected
Archbishop of Canterbury.
||Building of Notre Dame in Paris begins.
||Snorri Sturluson, Icelandic poet and
||Tea arrives in Japan from China.
||Magna Carta signed by King John.
||Building of Toledo Cathedral begins in
Spain; the Japanese potter Toshiro returns home from China and starts
||Paper used in Germany.
||Paper made at Fabriano,
where it is still being made.
||Marco Polo sets off for Cathay.
Southern Italy, where until recently, some of the oldest handmade
paper mills in Italy were operating near Amalfi, in the Naples area.
First mention of the Fabriano, Italy, paper mills (1276). First mill
established in Bologna, Italy (1293).
||By this year Florence has become the
leading European city in commerce and finance.
||Watermarks used in Europe
for the first time. They consisted of simple crosses and circles
||Block printing practiced in Ravenna.
||Invention of spectacles.
||Dante and Giotto flourish.
||Paper used in England.
||Lyons silk industry developed by Italian
||Paper used in Holland.
||The Aztecs establish Mexico City.
||Invention of the sawmill.
||Animal sizing first used
||Geoffrey Chaucer born.
||Paper made in France (Troyes).
||Paper made by Ulman
Stromer of Germany (Nuremberg), with the assistance of Italian
craftsmen. A woodcut of this mill is given in Schedel's Nurnberg
||Manuel Chrysoloras opens Greek classes in
Florence: beginning of revival of Greek literature in Italy.
||In Flanders a papermaker
named Jean L'Espagnol mentioned at Huy, probably the first papermaker
in this locality.
||The Medici of Florence become bankers to
||Paper made in Holland.
||Joan of Arc burned to death at Rouen;
Brunelleschi devises the cupola for the Florence Cathedral.
||Paper made in
||Vatican Library founded; Florence under the
Medici becomes center of Renaissance humanism; and Mocha in
southwestern Arabia becomes main port for coffee export.
42-line Bible produced. The beginning of book printing in Europe and
the beginning of the use of paper on a comparatively large scale. The
paper used in the printing of this Bible has never been excelled for
durability and remains to this day a monument to the papermaking
||Leonardo da Vinci becomes a pupil of
||Pico de Mirandola, Italian humanist born.
||Erasmus of Rotterdam, European humanist,
born. Music printed for the first time.
advertisement issued by Peter Schoeffer is considered to be the first
printed poster upon paper to be produced in Europe.
||Nicolaus Copernicus born.
||William Caxton sets up
first printing shop in Westminster. All of the paper used by Caxton
was brought from the Low Countries.
||Anthony Koberger, printer
of Nuremberg, distributed a printed circular to his customer, probably
the first use of this form of advertising.
||Paper made in Poland. By
1546 there were thirty-five paper mills in Poland.
||Columbus sailed from Spain to the New
World; Granada conquered by the Spanish and extinguish the Moorish
kingdom; Torquemada gives order that Spanish Jews have three months to
accept Christianity or leave the country.
||Nurnberg Chronicle issued
by Schedel. In the double-page image of the city of Nurnberg is shown
a small picture of the Ulman Stromer paper mill (lower right corner).
This was the first picture of a paper mill to be used in a European
||Paper first made in
England by John Tate, in Hertfordshire. The first printer to make use
of Tate paper was Wynken de Worde (1496).
||First watermark in
||Leonardo da Vinci begins "The Last
||Cabot reached Canada; Amerigo Vespucci
disputes Columbus' claims.
||Vasco da Gama reaches India; Savonarola
burned as a heretic in Florence; Michelangelo sculpts "Pietą in
||First black-lead pencils used in England.
< 500 |
500 - 1000 |
1000 - 1500 |1500 >
- Years -